Be at peace - this is not a dire mechanical problem, most likely.
A bit of digging on the net revealed that there are a minimum of 2 places where things can have gone horribly wrong (and some of this is my own experience)
1) Open the bonnet, and be ready to be handy with a screwdriver - it is very possible that either a plug has come loose (very unlikely) on one of the air sensors in the engine bay, but more likely that one of the clamps has sprung off the whole air intake manifold system. This happens, and a good solution is be prepared to purchase a number of small hose clips to keep the pipes nice and air tight. From my experience, the sort of rubbish you are experiencing is likely possible if the pipe coming from the inlet pipe (big black one between the filter box and throttle body butterfly, with small pipes coming out) may have come loose on the vacuum sensor - which looks like a small metal cylinder, wires out the back, one pipe terminating in the intake manifold, and clamp holding it in place. When loose or OFF (groan) - the problems you have just described will plague you, with a possible oily smell out of the bonnet too.
2) Purely electronic ! You are right to suspect the Bluetooth integration, it sounded fishy that the engine went haywire (quite literally) after your phone rang. Best suggestion - pay Alfa whatver they charge for an OBDII Motronic analysis, and determine whats gone weird. You will also most likely gain a firmware upgrade in the process, to prevent this problem in future - bonus !
If something is broken or needing a service in the engine bay, the Motronic System will be able to tell you what that part is. Almost all the electronics in a modern Alfa are by Bosch, so a replacement will be reasonably easy to get, if a trifle expensive.
So check the engine bay first, and if all is present and correct with no loose pipes, then its crawl to the Alfa workshop. Also, plenty of worksops advertise on here too, so have a look around.