Ok I'll try to make it simple by just talking about fueling.......btw this is not a full explanation.
The amount of air coming into the car is measured by the MAF (it also takes air temperature into account to determine the Mass of the incoming air and not just the volume).
The ECU then looks up its standard (default) fueling table and then determines how much fuel to add.
The ECU then checks that the lambda reading of the exhaust is correct (only at idle and low cruising speed). If the default table is correct then the lambda should be 1.
However consider a case when the MAF starts to age and then the reading it gives is incorrect. This will result in the lambda being incorrect (for example, the MAF may say that more air is coming in than there actually is and so the ECU will add too much fuel.....the result will be that the lambda reading is wrong and too much fuel will end up being unburnt).
So what the ECU now does is that it adds/subtracts a small amount to the fueling thus bring the lambda reading back to 1. In this way the ECU compensates (LEARNS) for aging or faulty sensors.
The ECU thus uses the default values (these are used when the ECU is reset) plus the fuel trims to always end up with a lambda of 1.
If the MAF gets too badly out then the ECU "runs out" of trim (the software has set limits) and then the warning lamp comes on.
So there's no adapting to your driving style.......that's an urban myth. All the ECU does when it is learning is to compensate for sensor readings, different fuel etc. and keep the lambda at 1.
When the ECU is reset then the fuel trim readings are erased and the default tables are used. The ECU will then start to add fuel trims if necessary and this is the LEARNING process.
That is the simple version of ECU Learning and as I said it has bog all to do with your driving style.