In a word, No
Misfire's are subject to what is causing it... For instance a spark plug fouled or on its last legs, a split in the coil boot or even oil/water in the wells won't detect a fault code in the ECU. The sensors detecting the timing and charge rate all the way to the coil packs have done their job.
However, depending on how bad, a knock sensor may pick up a misfire if it misses two continuous cycles in succession.
A faulty coil pack can be registered as a detected misfire on its ignition side or not producing the correct state of charge/ discharge process.
Circuits are only monitored to the last available sensor input.
A really bad misfire that is fuel rail system related and not ignition related can also possibly be detected by the knock sensor but more often than not, the O2 sensors...
As a general rule of thumb being:
"What goes into the engine via the MAF, MAP sensors must equate to what goes out via the O2 sensors"
When there is a discrepancy, then a fault code is thrown up.
All a good idea, but it doesn't let you know if a dirty fuel injector is causing the issue, only that a O2 sensor on bank 2 is running lean as an example.
The system isn't perfect and you should never totally rely on fault codes or even their accuracy or indeed, their fault location... It can be a totally different circuit monitoring the fault!
It is a good starting point though and if used with the seat of your pants and good, sound mechanical logic, 99% of the time both combined will get to the cause quickly, cheaply and easily.
After all, how many times have we seen threads with fault codes from particular circuits and the solution has been something totally different