The way the OP describes the problem it doesn't sound to me that the pushrod has slipped off the clutch pedal which is a common failure, and can be simply resolved by popping the pushrod back onto the clutch pedal and replacing the split-pin and maybe a washer or two.
The rod on the master cylinder is held in place by washer(s) 8 and the pin 9, there's every chance the pin has flown off along with the washer(s) and the master cylinder rod is now swinging loose.
The washer and pin could be behind the footrest if you can't find them in the footwell. It's easy enough to put it back together. There's a modified pin available, part No. 82455967.
As the clutch pedal is now free to travel higher, the plate (arrowed) that presses a white switch for the cruise control will now have pressed the pin on the switch further into the body. You may well find that your cruise control doesn't work once you've repaired the clutch pin, as the plate no longer reaches the switch pin.
This pin is self-adjusting, if you can hold the clutch pedal out of the way you can pull it out with long-nose pliers, it'll self-adjust when you release the clutch. If you're having difficulty doing it in place the switch can be removed, it's on a kind of bayonet fixing, a quarter turn will release it.
The way the OP describes the problem it sounds as if the pushrod itself has fallen out of the master cylinder, which it would expect required a new master cylinder.
All the best